Starting a company

How To Form A Corporation In New York

Key highlights

  1. Learn about the many corporate structures, such as C companies, S corporations, professional corporations, and not-for-profit corporations, that are available in New York.
  2. Recognize the obligations of directors to a corporation and the procedures for choosing and appointing directors in New York.
  3. Discover the necessary details and filing costs for drafting and submitting a Certificate of Incorporation to the New York Department of State.
  4. Recognize the significance of drafting company bylaws, the essential components to include, and the steps involved in adopting and changing them.
  5. Understanding the agenda, purpose, and significance of creating and approving meeting minutes can help you prepare for organizational meetings.
  6. Learn how to apply for and use an Employer Identification Number (EIN) from the IRS for tax and administrative purposes.
  7. Recognize the prerequisites for registering for New York's franchise tax, sales and use tax, and other state and municipal taxes.
  8. Learn how to discover the licenses and permissions your company needs, how to obtain them, and how to keep your company compliant with the law.

Corporations are typical in New York, and many business owners opt to incorporate a business there. As a significant hub for business and finance, New York provides businesses with several benefits, including easy access to money, a trained staff, and a broad clientele. Incorporating a firm in New York can offer several tax advantages and legal safeguards.

In this post, we shall explore the advantages of incorporating a business in New York. We will also go through how to form a corporation in the state and offer advice on dealing with the legal requirements. 

This article will offer helpful insights into the benefits of incorporating your business in the Empire States, whether you are a first-time business owner or an established company owner wishing to grow your operations.

Types of Corporations in New York

A. General Corporation (C Corporation) 

The most typical corporate structure in New York is a public company or C corporation. This organization allows for several classes of stock and provides shareholders with limited liability protection. C companies are susceptible to double taxation since shareholders and the corporation both pay taxes on dividends received.

B. S Corporation (Subchapter S Corporation)

An S company avoids double taxation by transferring income and losses to shareholders, who then report them on their tax returns. To be eligible for S corporation status in New York, the corporation must fulfill specific eligibility criteria, including having no more than 100 shareholders who are United States residents.

C. Professional Corporation (PC)

Licensed professionals, such as physicians, attorneys, or accountants, can create a professional company, often known as a PC. Professionals can benefit from restricted liability protection under this framework while keeping their licenses.

D. Non-profit Organization

A corporation established for charitable, educational, religious, or other non-profit reasons is not-for-profit. These corporations must adhere to specific legal standards, such as having a board of directors and holding regular meetings, and are exempt from federal and state taxes.

Naming Your Corporation

A. Corporate naming requirements in New York

Corporate names in New York must be distinct and not too dissimilar from those of other companies. A corporate descriptor must also be present in the name, such as "Corporation," "Incorporated," or a contraction of these phrases.

B. Searching for name availability

It's crucial to check the New York Department of State's internet database before choosing a business name to ensure it is accessible. This will lessen the likelihood of future legal challenges and conflicts with current businesses.

C. Reservation of a corporate name

If a desired corporate name is available, a Name Reservation Application must be submitted to the New York Department of State to reserve it for up to 60 days. This might offer you more time to prepare and submit the required paperwork for your company's incorporation.

D. Fictitious names (DBA) and branding considerations

You might need to register a "Doing Business As" (DBA) or "Fictitious Name" with the New York Department of State if you want to do business under a name other than your corporate name. A trade name or an assumed name are different names for this. When choosing your corporate and DBA names, remember that they will help define your company's identity and reputation. You should also consider your branding and marketing plan.

Appointing corporate Directors

A. Role and responsibilities of directors

Directors supervise a company's management and make crucial choices on its operations and strategic direction. They also ensure the company abides by all legal and regulatory standards.

B. New York's requirements for directors

A corporation should have at least one director in New York. Directors must be at least 18 years old and are not allowed to have certain criminal convictions. Additionally, they must fulfill specific residence criteria, including residing in New York or keeping an office there.

C. Selecting and appointing directors

The procedure for choosing and appointing directors differs based on the rules of the organization and state regulations. In most cases, directors are either selected by shareholders or already-elected directors. In some cases, shareholders may also have the authority to oust directors.

When choosing directors, the expertise, credentials, and readiness to serve on the board should all be considered. Ensuring the board is diverse and represents a range of viewpoints and skills is also crucial.

In conclusion, choosing directors is essential to creating and running a business in New York. You may contribute to ensuring that your company is effectively managed and in compliance with all legal requirements by choosing directors with the necessary qualifications, experience, and commitment to the corporation's success.

Drafting and Filing the Certificate of Incorporation

A. Preparing the Certificate of Incorporation

A legal document that certifies a corporation's existence in New York is the Certificate of Incorporation. It must be created in compliance with both the corporation's bylaws and state regulations. A lawyer or other trained expert should be consulted to ensure the document is correct and conform to all legal requirements.

B. Information required in the Certificate of Incorporation

The name and location of the company, its purpose, the number of authorized shares, the name and address of the registered agent, and the names and addresses of the directors should be listed on the certificate of incorporation.

C. Filing the Certificate of Incorporation with the New York Department of State

The Certificate of Incorporation must be submitted to the New York Department of State after it has been created and verified. You can do this via mail or online. It's crucial to ensure that the paperwork is signed and dated by the incorporator and that all necessary Information is included.

D. Filing fees and processing times

The current Certificate of Incorporation filing fee in New York is $125. Processing timelines might vary based on the filings received and other circumstances, but they might extend to a few weeks.

In conclusion, a crucial stage in establishing a New York business is to draft and file the Certificate of Incorporation. You can aid in ensuring that your company is legitimately created and run effectively in the state by providing the correct paperwork and complying with all legal criteria.

Creating Corporate Bylaws

A. Importance of corporate bylaws

A corporation's administration and operational policies are outlined in its bylaws, which are legal documents. They are crucial because they provide the board of directors, executives, and shareholders direction, clarity, and support, ensuring that the organization complies with applicable state NY corporate laws and regulations.

B. Key elements of corporate bylaws

Corporate bylaws frequently contain:

  • Clauses that address the make-up and authority of the board of directors.
  • The selection of officers.
  • The issue and transfer of shares.
  • Shareholder meetings.
  • Bylaw amendments.

It's crucial to ensure the bylaws are thorough and includes all pertinent topics regarding the management and functioning of the organization.

C. Adopting and amending corporate bylaws

The board of directors must adopt corporate bylaws, and the shareholders must provide their consent. According to the bylaws, they may be changed by a vote of the shareholders or the board of directors. Ensuring that any bylaw revisions are correctly documented and adhering to state laws and regulations is crucial.

In conclusion, corporate bylaws are crucial to a corporation's governance structure in New York. By establishing thorough and well-organized bylaws, you can ensure that your company is effectively managed and works following all legal requirements.

Holding an Organizational Meeting

A. purpose and agenda of the organizational meeting

A newly established corporation's board of directors and shareholders usually convene for the first time during the organizational meeting. Its goals include:

  • Approving the issuing of shares.
  • Approving the adoption of bylaws.
  • Electing executives.
  • Handling other organizational issues.

All pertinent business entity items should be on the agenda and prepared in advance.

B. Preparing and approving minutes of the meeting

The board of directors or shareholders should prepare and approve the organizational meeting minutes. A description of the decisions made at the meeting, such as the selection of officials and approval of rules, should be included in the minutes. The secretary or another designated official must sign and date the minutes before they are maintained in the company's records.

C. Issuing stock and maintaining a stock ledger

You can carry out stock issuance at the organizational meeting if the board of directors or shareholders agree. The stock should be registered in a stock ledger that is kept up to date by the corporation, and stock certificates should support it. The stock ledger has to have details such as the shareholders' names and addresses, the amount and kind of shares they own, and the dates of issue and transfer.

Obtaining an Employer Identification Number (EIN)

A. Purpose of an EIN

An EIN is a unique nine-digit number the IRS gives to a company entity for tax and administrative identification. Most corporations need it to do business, including opening bank accounts, requesting business licenses, filing tax filings, and other tasks.

B. Applying for an EIN from the IRS

The corporation must complete an online application on the IRS website or send Form SS-4 by mail, fax, or phone to apply for an EIN. The application asks for details, including the corporation's legal name and address, its kind of business organization, and the applicant's name, Social Security Number (SSN), or Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN) things.

C. Using the EIN for tax and administrative purposes

After obtaining one, the corporation can utilize its EIN for tax and administrative purposes. For instance, the corporation's EIN must appear on all tax returns, payroll tax forms, and other papers about New York State taxes. Additionally, it's crucial to utilize the EIN consistently throughout all company endeavors and to have it on file with all pertinent governmental organizations.

Registering for State and Local Taxes

A. New York State tax requirements

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All businesses in New York State must adhere to various state tax regulations. This entails submitting regular tax returns, registering with the New York State Department of Taxation and Finance, and acquiring applicable licenses or permissions. Corporate franchise tax, sales and use tax, and company income tax are a few taxes that might be levied against firms.

B. Sales and use tax registration

It may be necessary for the corporation to register for sales and use tax purposes if it offers certain taxable services or sells tangible personal property in the state of New York. Obtaining a Certificate of Authority from the New York State Department of Taxation and Finance is necessary, as is collecting and sending sales tax on taxable transactions.

C. Franchise tax and other applicable taxes

Regardless of where they were established, most businesses in New York State are subject to a corporate franchise tax. The franchise tax is calculated depending on the corporation's capital, net income, or other elements. According to their unique operations and circumstances, companies may also be liable to additional taxes, including withholding, estate, and property taxes.

D. Local tax requirements and company registration

In addition to state taxes, companies may also be liable to several municipal taxes, including property taxes, occupancy taxes, and local sales and use taxes. Different tax regulations and registration processes apply depending on the region where the organization conducts business.

Acquiring Necessary Permits and Licenses

A. Identifying required permits and licenses

Different sorts of enterprises could need various permissions and licenses to operate lawfully in New York. A company license, sales tax permission, zoning permit, health and safety permit, construction permit, and professional license are some examples, but they are not the only ones. The particular permissions and licenses needed will vary depending on the type of business, where it is located, and what services or goods it provides.

B. Application process and fees

Depending on the kind of permission or license needed, different requirements, procedures, and costs exist. Various forms may need to be submitted, paperwork may need to be provided, and inspections or other evaluations may be required as part of the application process. Various application steps, such as submitting the initial application, renewals, and any necessary inspections, may include the assessment of fees.

C. Maintaining compliance with regulatory requirements

Once the required authorizations have been secured, continuing to adhere to all legal compliance obligations is crucial. This includes renewing licenses and permits as necessary, adhering to continuous reporting or inspection obligations, and promptly attending to infractions or citations. Failure to adhere can lead to fines, penalties, and possibly even the termination of the company's operating license.

Maintaining Ongoing Compliance

A. Annual filing requirements for corporations in New York

To retain their legal status and conformity with state law, corporations in New York are obliged to produce various yearly reports and declarations. This includes fulfilling any additional continuing reporting or disclosure obligations particular to the business's industry or location and submitting an annual report to the New York Department of State and corporate income tax returns to the New York State Department of Taxation and Finance.

B. Corporate record-keeping best practices

For continued compliance and legal protection, having accurate and current business formation documents is crucial. Meeting minutes, bylaws, financial statements, and other significant records about the administration and functioning of the company may be found in corporate records. To maintain compliance with legal obligations and promote efficient decision-making and strategic planning, it is crucial to keep these documents organized, available, and updated regularly.

C. Updating corporate Information with the Department of State

Corporations in New York must update their company information with the Department of State as needed in addition to the yearly filing obligations. This can entail altering the company's registered agent or address or name or making other substantial adjustments to the corporate governance or management. To guarantee continuous adherence to state law, advising the Department of State of any modifications is crucial.


Choosing a corporate structure, naming the business, appointing directors, drafting and filing a Certificate of Incorporation, creating corporate bylaws, holding an organizational meeting, obtaining an Employer Identification Number (EIN), registering for state and local taxes, obtaining required permits and licenses, and maintaining ongoing compliance with legal requirements are all crucial steps in the incorporation of a business in New York. For a company to succeed and survive in New York, it is essential to maintain compliance with all laws and regulations. Businesses may guarantee they are in good legal standing and avert future legal or financial troubles by following the instructions in this article and keeping correct and current corporate records. Incorporating a business in New York may be a simple and profitable process with careful preparation and attention to detail.

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